Established in 1995, the JSU Student Symposium provides a forum to publicly display and acknowledge the best work of JSU's students. More than 30 papers, posters, and projects were presented at the 2021 symposium, held virtually 10-11 February 2021; these works are archived here, along with the symposium proceedings. The following awards were presented:
- Arts & Humanities
- Undergraduate: Jewelle Morton, "Frida Kahlo: Art & Politics Between the United States and Mexico" School of Health Professions & Wellness
- Undergraduate: Christian King, "Different Treatment Options for Shoulder Impingement Syndrome"
- Graduate: Greta Romei, "The Effectiveness of Dry Needling in Sport-Related Injuries" School of Science
- Undergraduate (3-way tie): Dakota Heathcock, "Bridging the Gap: Re-establishing the Connection Between the Hard and Soft Sciences"; Eric Wade, Simon Hopkins, and Tyler Johnson, "Project Run"; Trinity Elston, Alexis Petty, Alan Holderfield, Amira Carter, Tanner Vandever, and Natalie Forte, "Genetic & Evolutionary Conservation Analysis in C. elegans to Examine the Functional Conservation of Human Genes and Decipher Variants of Uncertain Significance"
- Graduate: Kaitlyn Rayburn, "Surreal Use of Geography: Gris"
- Undergraduate: Jordan Adkins, "Financial Issues in Sports: The Economic Impact of the Atlanta Braves Move from Turner Field to Trust Park"
- Graduate: Lulu Hamissou, "Basquiat: Historic Issues and Deterritorialism Through Art"
- Chris Howard
- Chelsea Owens, "Post-Pleistocene Distribution of Arundinaria gigantea in Northeastern Alabama"
- Richard Donaldson, "Weight Loss and the Athlete"
[ Best Paper ]
[ Best Cover Design ] (for graphic design of symposium program)
[ Best of Showcase ]
[ Houston Cole Library Award for Research Excellence ]
Financial Issues in Sports: The Economic Impact of the Atlanta Braves Move from Turner Field to Truist Park
Thousands of fans attend each Atlanta Braves home game. Atlanta’s hosting of the 1996 Olympics left the city with Turner Field Stadium located in downtown Atlanta. “In 2013, the Braves announced they were leaving Turner Field for a new stadium to be built in Cobb County, northwest of the city. At the time, Club President John Schuerholz said that Turner Field needed "hundreds of millions of dollars of upgrades.” (Martin, 2016) This presentation will explain the economic impact of the relocation of the Atlanta Brave’s Turner Field in downtown Atlanta to Truist Park of Cobb County Georgia. “As one of the few U.S. sports franchises with publicly traded stock, the Braves are required to disclose financial results that most teams keep private” (Tucker, 2020).
Southern literature is rooted in traditional Southern identity and values, but it has adopted contemporary thoughts and characteristics while detaching from conventional yet troublesome ideas. Three exemplary novels are to be considered as candidates for a contemporary literary canon of Southern literature: Saints at the River by Ron Rash, Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café by Fannie Flagg, and Beloved by Toni Morrison. Before selecting a novel for the canon, it is important to analyze each novel’s sense of Southern identity and each author’s adaptation to cultural changes regarding gender and gender representation – specifically for female characters – in literature. Comparing the representation of female characters by a male author – Ron Rash – with a female author – Fannie Flagg and Toni Morrison – through Southern literature and accompanied research will provide a better understanding of the significance of gender portrayal, roles, and stereotypes in literature. Ron Rash’s Saints at the River demonstrates characteristics of Southern literature through its setting, themes, conflict, Southern identity, and vivid imagery. The male author’s representation and portrayal of women in the novel, however, seems rooted in traditional stereotypes and denotes inconsistency in character development. Fannie Flagg’s Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café exhibits characteristics of Southern identity in setting, characters, themes, transition between past and present events, social issues, and overall language. Flagg, a female author, created female characters that break gender norms, roles, and stereotypes while also suffering with realistic issues such as abuse and depression. Toni Morrison’s Beloved incorporates Southern themes of identity, slavery, abuse, sexism, and racism. Morrison, an African American female author, highlights themes beyond gender norms and stereotypes; light is shed on both racial oppression and women’s oppression that African American women face daily. There are numerous areas of research regarding the representation of female characters by male authors in comparison to female authors. Some critics believe male authors cannot and will not accurately portray female characters in literature. Others believe male authors exaggerate descriptions of female characters because they associate emotional and descriptive language with female characters, not male characters. Regardless of the specific belief, research clearly supports the argument that male authors represent female characters in a different way than female authors. Of the three novels, Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café proves to be the most qualified candidate for the contemporary literary canon of Southern literature. The novel represents countless elements of Southern literature and bridges the gap between traditional Southern identity and contemporary Southern identity. The novel also effectively represents women through its many female protagonists and feminist themes, which simply confirms the novel’s rightful place on a contemporary literary canon of Southern literature.
Evaluation of Developmental Toxicity of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Using the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay: Xenopus (FETAX)
Bupivacaine HCl is used as a long-lasting pharmaceutical local anaesthetic to anesthetize nerves in localized area such as dental surgery sites and helps reduce opioid abuse. Bupivacaine HCl is a next generation of amino-amide anesthetics such as lidocaine. There is seemingly limited analysis on this chemicals teratogenic potential. The potential teratogenic hazard of Bupivacaine HCl was evaluated using the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Early stage embryos of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, were exposed to concentrations of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride for 4 days from small cell blastula to a free living tadpole. Plastic Petri dishes of 20 embryos in 8 mls of test solution were used as our experimental unit. Four controls and 2 replicates for each concentration were used. Every 24 hours dead embryos were removed and solutions were renewed. At the end of 4 days mortality, malformations and embryo length were recorded. The teratogenic potential of Bupivacaine HCl was calculated by dividing the 96-hr LC50 / 96-hr EC50. The 96-hr LC50 was approximately 70, 96-hr EC50 was approximately 10 yielding a teratogenic potential of Bupivacaine HCl of about 7. These results indicate that Bupivacaine HCl would cause increase risk of developmental anomalies.
Leaf litter is defined as deceased plant material that has fallen to the ground. This dead organic material, known as leaf litter, and its constituent nutrients are an addition to the top layer of soil, which is known as the litter layer. Decomposition provides readily available nutrients to plants, incorporating organic carbon into soil through nutrient cycling processes. This semester, a group of student experiments were used to study the impacts of various environmental factors on leaf litter decomposition. Every group deployed their experimental leaf litter bags in either an aquatic habitat or a terrestrial habitat for a period of 5 weeks. Students prepped, launched, and processed their own leaf litter bags for the experimental study. In the study, the students used mesh bags to hold 25 g of leaves and left the bags in the field for a total of five weeks. At the conclusion of the field period, students processed their leaf bags, dried the leaves, and re-weighed them to calculate a final decomposition rate (i.e., mass loss per day). I performed calculations on the student datasets in a meta-analysis to measure whether there was an overall difference in aquatic versus terrestrial decomposition rates across student trials. The results of my meta-analysis demonstrated that the aquatic habitat had higher leaf litter decomposition rates than the terrestrial habitat. My hypothesis was accepted as I found that the aquatic habitat had higher leaf litter decomposition rates than the terrestrial habitat. Potential future studies that could be addressed from the student experiments could include an in-depth analysis on the factors that went into the aquatic habitat having higher decomposition rates than the terrestrial habitat. Several factors can influence the decomposition rate of leaf litter. Factors such as the presence of water, light levels, and biological activity should be considered.
There are many different approaches to weight loss. High carbohydrate, low carbohydrate, high fat, low fat, and high protein. Any combination of those macronutrients listed can facilitate weight loss in athletes. One common denominator in all the studies discussed in this review is the appearance of an energy deficit. An energy deficit of around 0.5-0.7% seems to be the ideal and optimal range to lose weight and fat mass at a successful level without losing muscle mass. The goal of any athlete should be to lose as much fat mass as possible while maintaining and sometimes even adding muscle mass while in an energy deficit. Athletes looking to lose weight or maintain the weight lost previously need to implement a high protein diet. Protein, in all studies cited in this literature review, has been increased by 2-3 times the recommended daily allowance. The recommended daily allowance is 0.8 g/kg, but athletes with their significant energy expenditure need a drastic increase in protein to increase the satiety of meals. Athletes vary from individual to individual when it comes to the amount of energy expended and the energy needed to be consumed, and the type of diet. One athlete may respond very well to the ketogenic diet, while another athlete may respond better to a high carbohydrate, low-fat diet. Athletes should continue to resistance train in combination with their sports practice and games. Resistance training has shown to be one of the most effective avenues for athletes, and individuals in general, to improve their body composition and lose fat mass. Athletes need to be in a slight energy deficit (~500 calorie deficit), consume high amounts of protein (~1.7-2.4 g/kg), and continue resistance training throughout their weight loss plan to not decrease their muscle mass. The slow approach to weight loss is the most important aspect concerning the health of athletes. Athletes often develop eating disorders when a rapid weight loss plan has been implemented. The goal is for athletes to understand food is important to their health and performance, and the relationship athletes have with food is vital to their health and well-being. Athletes should be taught the importance of weight loss and how it should be done correctly. In the end, athletes, coaches, and trainers need to find what diet and strategy benefits each athlete. Finally, as stated earlier, an athlete needs an energy deficit, sufficient protein intake to maintain muscle mass, and the athlete needs to continue to resistance train to facilitate the best results possible.
Genetic & Evolutionary Conservation Analysis in C. elegans to Examine the Functional Conservation of Human Genes and Decipher Variants of Uncertain Significance
Trinity Elston, Alexis Petty, Alan Holderfield, Amira Carter, Tanner Vandever, and Natalie Forte
Impressive technological advances in genome sequencing have surpassed our capability to interpret the clinical implications of the genetic variation we discover. The majority of genetic variants identified in patients are currently clinically classified as “variant of unknown significance (VUS),” where their causation of disease or association with disease risk are unclear. Explorations of VUS in genetically tractable model organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, are integral studies for assessing the functional conservation of human genes and understanding the functional consequences of disease-associated variants. VUS tend to be missense variants that are particularly challenging for interpretation. We examined missense VUS identified in patients with a wide range of diseases with C. elegans orthologous genes, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cystinuria, and supravalvular aortic stenosis. We identified conserved missense VUS in the following human genes and orthologous C. elegans genes: DRD5 and dop-2; INSR and daf-2; PEPD and K12C11.1; SLC3A1 and atgp-2; ELN and ssq-1. Preliminary genetic and evolutionary conservation analyses suggest functional impact for some of these VUS, warranting further in vivo investigation. We are working to optimize polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping assays and phenotyping assays to generate and assess CRISPR-Cas9-engineered C. elegans models containing each VUS. These findings fuel our research pipeline that facilitates assessment of the functional conservation of human genes and structure-function analysis of disease-associated variants through CRISPR-Cas9-engineered C. elegans models with in vivo functional assays to decipher variants of uncertain significance.
Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi that includes about 600 species. These mushrooms have been consumed for a long time; however, despite the broad range of effects reported regarding cordyceps effects’, little data is available to pinpoint this herb’s mechanism. Results of the few cordyceps-related studies have shown these mushrooms to improve pulmonary ventilation, strengthen the immune system, improve athletic performance, and reduce the effects of aging. Cordyceps can help the body utilize oxygen more efficiently and enhance blood flow. This can be especially helpful for athletes or those who regularly workout. Cordyceps supplementation may enhance physiological responses to improve performance. However, their metabolic effects are different among young athletes and elderly individuals. Cordyceps have been tested, proven to improve resistance to fatigue, aerobic and anaerobic capacities, along with other health benefits in elderly individuals. Furthermore, cordyceps supplementation has been shown to improve exercise endurance capacity by activating the skeletal muscle metabolic regulators and coordinated antioxidant response. Future studies involving the specific mechanisms of cordyceps may provide insight into effective prescriptions of this herbal supplement.
The work I have chosen is a poem titled, Let America Be America Again, by Langston Hughes. I have chosen to focus on the overall diction and importance of the words utilized within the poem in efforts to identify a deeper-rooted meaning. The following sources, The Attic, Poets.Org, and Litcharts.com will all contribute to any research I intend to conduct. There are many connections that will be made concerning this particular work. For example, we can easily distinguish this work as a work of literature throughout the Harlem Renaissance. We can also examine the works of other African American artists during the Harlem Renaissance such as Claude McKay. During this time, segregation was still permitted, and blacks were still given the short end of the stick all around. These events inspired Hughes to discuss the hardships that blacks faced as well as all minorities in America. He depicts America as a nation that has failed to keep any and all promises. This video essay mainly establishes a connection between the famous MAGA slogan, with Let America Be America Again.
As part of my learning experience as a computer science major, I am studying the rules of formal logic. Studying these rules will allow me to be able to understand and to construct correct mathematical arguments and also, to distinguish between valid and invalid arguments.
Logic is important in understanding mathematical reasoning. Besides this aspect, logic has numerous applications to computing. We use the rules of logic to design computer circuits, to construct correct computer programs, to verify the correctness of programs, and in many other ways. Software systems have been developed to build proofs automatically.
One area of logic is the study of logical paradoxes.
What is a logical paradox?
In my presentation, I will answer this question, and refer to the study of logical paradoxes in depth.
During the late 1970s, curious graffiti tags began appearing on walls in SoHo and the Lower East Side of NY, under the pseudonym, SAMO. Created by artists Jean-Michel Basquiat and Al Diaz, SAMO, an acronym for same ol’ shit, became a mouthpiece against the bourgeoisie of NYC. His artwork is rich with abstract figures, color, symbols, and type. While some critics have classified his work as juvenile and untrained, scholarship appears to offer a contemplative approach to Basquiat’s work. Many argue that the intellectual meaning behind Basquiat’s work was often over-looked and was instead oversimplified.
My thesis explains how Basquiat incorporated symbols in his artwork, which reference ancestry, exploitation, injustice, and slavery in order to connect his art with issues that were historically associated with the challenges that many African Americans faced. Secondly, I argue that Basquiat’s work used the past and present (as in his present time) in a way to address racial injustice by means of examining the journey of his subjects and their process of coming to be rather than the way they were presently viewed, a state of becoming. In order to present my argument, I focus on two paintings by Basquiat named Hollywood Africans, c.1983 and Charles the First, c.1982.
First, I describe how Basquiat used references in Hollywood Africans to convey some of the historical social issues connected to African Americans. Then, I discuss how scholars believe that the symbols featured in Charles the First can connect to African American ancestry and exploitation.
Next, I examine how Basquiat used the theme of how the past and the then-present conveyed a narration of escape in both Hollywood Africans and Charles the First.
Finally, my conclusion shows that scholarship appears to support an intentional use of symbols to connect the viewer to topics associated with culture. Additionally, scholars suggest that escape may have been a concept used to relate the past with the then-present in an effort tell the journey of racial confines can be overcome.
It has been evident that athletes in specific sports gravitate to the need to increase weight fast and safely. Unfortunately, many of the avenue’s athletes take to gain weight is detrimental to their overall goal of gaining weight and maintaining their present performance level. In many cases strength coaches, trainers, dieticians, nutritionist, and recruiters plague young athletes’ minds to increase weight, stating that it is more desirable to recruiters if they were bigger in size. However, weight gain has its perks for competition, as it allows athletes to gain more strength and compete better. Furthermore, educating athletes how to properly gain weight through a process is more important than the end results. Numerous of uneducated athletes acknowledge the advice of gaining weight by indulging in fatty foods, fast foods, high cholesterol items and unhealthy foods to dimmish the weight gap between competitors. Take a keen magnified look at the message we are suggesting to our athletes and the potential psychological disorders, consequently leading to mal practices that can induce negative performance outcomes for these athletes. As weight gain is needed for recruiting purposes and enhanced performance, it is imperative that coaches, trainers, dieticians, and nutritionist properly educate athletes on their journey to a mass increase.
Throughout recorded history, science has played a crucial role in the development of our world. One cannot begin to fathom the complexity of our world from any perspective without a somewhat firm understanding of some form of science. Whether it be physical, social, psychological, political or any other area of our lives, science exists in some way, shape or form. Whenever advancements have been made in any field, science has played a role. This presentation will take a look at the two branches known as the “Hard” and “Soft” sciences. I will describe each of these two branches, illustrate the differences between them, highlight major contributors from each area, emphasize the previous connections that existed between these two arms of science and how they have now drifted apart, and explain how we, as a society, can re-establish this scientific connection. Furthermore, I will note the harmful effects that have been caused by this split between the two branches and elaborate on the benefits and opportunities that will be created for our nation and world if we can come together and bring these two arms back together to the heart of the scientific community.
My PowerPoint presentation was used in an initial assignment for ED 501, where the class was supposed to display an understanding of ways to plagiarize and the consequences of plagiarizing in the School of Education. The class of ED 501 were encouraged to use creativity in the assignment.
Googie commercial architecture of the 1950s is an iconic part of American art and culture due to the unique aesthetic designs geared toward popular taste. These architectural designs draw consumers off the roadways by using eye-catching streamline organic shapes, high-sheen metallic surfaces, striking curvilinear corners, and planet-shaped store front signs. Glamourized and “camera-ready” as if about to be photographed at any moment, these structures are a commentary on Los Angeles glamour in the 1950s. Googie architects designed commercial spaces where audiences do not need to experience theoretical and “high-art” principles in a museum, but they can experience quality design in a local commercial space. Googie commercial architecture is best understood as being a design form geared toward popular taste and found predominantly in mid-century Los Angeles. Rather than getting lost in the theoretical and high-art of Midcentury International Style, Minimalism, and Postwar Modernism, Googie relies on consumer culture inspired by gleaming metallic surfaces, rocket-like curves, streamline shapes, machine-like precision, and smooth clean surfaces that are geared towards popular taste; herein lies its strengths. By studying the Googie architectural elements in works by John Lautner, Louis Armét, Eldon Davis, and Stanley C. Metson, one can see consumer culture and popular taste applied to these structures.
 Alan Hess, Googie Redux: Ultramodern Roadside Architecture (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2004), 17.
 Alice T. Friedman, American Glamour and the Evolution Of Modern Architecture (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 6.
 Robert M. Craig, "Streamlined Moderne." In The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art, ed. Joan Marter (Oxford University Press, 2011) https://www-oxfordreference-com.lib-proxy.jsu.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780195335798.001.0001/acref-9780195335798-e-1997.
Hiroshige Utagawa and Hiroshige Utagawa II were two Ukiyo-e artists in the Edo period. Hiroshige Utagawa created a famous series of works called One Hundred Famous Views of Edo while Hiroshige Utagawa II created many works based on the One Hundred Famous Views series. In this paper, it is discussed what Ukiyo-e woodblock prints are, as well as Hiroshige Utagawa’s life and his works. Two specific works by each of these artists are also discussed; New Year’s Eve Foxfires at the Changing tree and Paulownia Trees at Akasaka in the Evening Rain. New year’s Eve Foxfires at the Changing Tree is a landscape print that is a part of the One Hundred Famous Views of Edo series. This print in particular is different from many of the other works in Hiroshige’s Famous Views series because the subject matter is more fantasy-like. The subject matter is discussed, as well as a formal analysis of the work itself. Paulownia Trees at Akasaka in the Evening Rain was created by Hiroshige Utagawa’s son and the print was based on one of Hiroshige’s prints in One Hundred Famous Views of Edo by the name of Zojiji Pagoda and Akabane. The differences between the works are discussed, as well as a formal analysis of Paulownia Trees at Akasaka in the Evening Rain.
What happens to the local economy when a new establishment, such as Starbucks, enters the marketplace? When a new business comes to town, everyone rushes to try it out. Like a new kid on the block, Starbucks will likely be the “next big thing” in Jacksonville. This research will tell the full story of the impact that takes place. When new businesses locate in a city, we often are told by economic development officials the number of employees the business will hire and how much the construction will cost. But is that the whole economic impact picture? No. New businesses, especially in more rural areas, create a ripple effect on their local economy. Not only from the direct number of employees they hire, but from their equipment and goods suppliers, etc. The initial effect is what is known as the direct effect. Starbucks has to buy their coffee equipment, furniture, counterspace and shelves, cash registers, paper products, coffee, creamer, sugar, etc. This second ripple is called the indirect effect. You then have the employees of Starbucks who take their paycheck and purchase necessary living items such as pizza from Little Caesar’s, gas at Mapco, groceries at Johnson’s, or an oil change at Express Oil. This third ripple is called the induced effect. This research takes into account the direct effects of Starbucks spending to open its new location in Jacksonville, construction costs, and estimated first year operations costs. This data is entered into IMPLAN to provide the total economic output on Calhoun County. IMPLAN is an economic modeling software providing a validated methodology for producing accurate economic impact analysis. IMPLAN combines a set of extensive databases concerning economic factors, multipliers, and demographic statistics with a highly refined and detailed system of modeling software, including information on over 500 different industries. This analyzation will provide the whole picture of what takes place to the local economy when an entity such as Starbucks locates. It is not just about getting a cup of coffee, rather the effect that cup of coffee will have on Calhoun County as a whole.
Treatments for shoulder impingements have been a popular topic of research for many years. When treating a shoulder impingement, it is not a far reach to suggest a method that directly determines the outcome. We analyzed several impingement treatment methods and attempted to compare the success rate of each method. Our goal was to determine which approaches were the most effective while preventing indirect benefits from combined treatment plans from skewing results. In most studies, a wide range of ages was included as well as a mixture of male and female participants. The initial injury method varied between participants. Results were consistent across treatments; however, the accurate comparison among methods was challenging. Manual stretching and physical rehabilitation showed positive results in improving both pain and range of motion. Corticosteroid injections appeared to be more effective than ultrasound-guided ozone therapy, although both significantly improved shoulder function and pain. Surgery also showed to be an effective treatment method, with a highly successful rehabilitation rate. Overall, it was difficult to determine which treatment is more beneficial due to different outcome measurement scales. These findings indicate that shoulder impingement treatment can be a fluid process, and several methods can be successful. Many treatment approaches need to be considered, depending on the circumstance, since there are various options.
Angel Lockridge, Peighton Tavis, and Stephen Jerod Sharp
Mammalian histones are highly alkaline proteins found in the nuclei that organize DNA into chromosomes and regulate transcription. Cytochrome c is a heme protein that is found between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes and functions to transfer electrons of the respiratory chain. We are investigating the interactions between histones and mitochondria and cytochrome C and mitochondria by using cell fractionation and Western Blotting to identify the histones and cytochrome C. The blocking step in the process coats the membrane with proteins or other molecules to reduce non-specific binding of the antibodies. Although 5% nonfat dry milk is widely used as a blocking buffer, we are testing different blocking buffers, as different blocking buffers yield different results, enhancing the signal or reducing it, depending on the specific antibodies used, and the optimal blocking buffer for a given antibody must be determined by experimentation . We use 5% nonfat dry milk (BLOTTO) as a control for all experiments, it is essential to use this variation of milk because it reduces background noise and helps produce good, clear bands. Since antibodies to histone H3 and cytochrome C are low-affinity and give a weak signal, we are therefore testing different blocking buffers, such as milk concentrations ranging from 1 to 5%, BSA ranging from 1 to 5%, and hemoglobin ranging from 1 to 5%, as well as gelatin at 3%, and PVP or PEG individually ranging from 1 to 4% and different combinations of the aforementioned blocking buffers to determine which blocking buffer gives the best detection signal to the histone and cytochrome C. Our preliminary results indicated that PVP/PEG combinations provided the strongest signal for both histone and cytochrome C, while gelatin tends to strip the proteins completely off of the blot and reduce the signal. Non-protein blocking buffers in general worked better than protein-based blocking buffers.
Frida Kahlo is known for her intimate works through the use of symbolic imagery to depict her own experiences through the lens of imagination and subconscious. While telling stories of her own pain, struggle, and vulnerability, Kahlo also incorporated societal and political ideals within her works. Elements of modernism, surrealism, and societal realism are constant throughout her works. As a woman artist in the early twentieth century, unfortunately her works did not begin to receive recognition until after her death. Frida Kahlo’s works are now celebrated as an essence of Mexican heritage also serving insight into Kahlo’s close connection to her indigenous heritage. Frida Kahlo became a celebrated figure not only in Mexican history, but internationally. The goal of this essay is to argue how Frida Kahlo’s symbolic works relate to her perception of her own heritage in connection with her time spent traveling the United States with husband Diego Rivera in which Kahlo experienced a completely new perspective of the world. In this essay, I will argue Kahlo used her own unique lens to highlight questions of nature versus manufacture within the United States under capitalist control and how Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera’s communist political views impacted her works, particularly in Self-Portrait on the Borderline Between Mexico and the United States, 1932.
North American biomes shifted south during glacial intervals. One of the affected species was Arundinaria gigantea (River Cane), at that time occupying a narrow band along the Gulf Coast. As the climate warmed, A. gigantea moved back throughout the southeast. Arundinaria gigantea propagates primarily through rhizomes, and there is no evidence of long-distance seed dispersal. Barriers to spread are thin soils and dry uplands, restricting movement to river valleys, and the significant barrier presented by the Appalachian Mountains. We hypothesized that one lineage of river cane spread north along the Mississippi/Ohio/Tennessee system into northern Alabama while a second lineage followed the Alabama/Coosa system into northeastern Alabama. These watersheds are widely separated, and where they meet, the Appalachians intervene. Since the lineages may have been isolated for over 10,000 years, we predict genetic differences between two meta-populations. Samples were taken from multiple clones from six populations of cane in the Tennessee River Valley and eight populations in the Coosa watershed. Samples were analyzed using DNA fingerprints derived from amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), which recovered 288 polymorphic gene loci. AFLP data revealed substantial genetic variation among populations but no correlation with the hypothesized lineages or any geographical features. Instead, local populations had a high proportion of unique alleles consistent with clonal reproduction and spatial fragmentation.