The effects of time-out and escape extinction were examined with 2 preschoolers after we identified variables that may have resulted in noncompliance. Results of a functional analysis showed that noncompliance was highest in the escape condition for both participants. During the treatment evaluation, escape extinction resulted in greater reductions in noncompliance relative to time-out.
McKerchar, Paige M. and Abby, Layla, "Systematic Evaluation of Variables that Contribute to Noncompliance: A Replication and Extension" (2012). Research, Publications & Creative Work. 65.