Date of Award

Summer 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS) in Psychology



Committee Chair

C. Renee Renda


“Say All Fast Minute Every Day Shuffled” (SAFMEDS) is a structured, evidence-based protocol for using flashcards. The protocol is a sequence of steps that are designed to promote accurate and quick responding to learn the information presented on flashcards. Although the benefits of using SAFMEDS have been well-documented, much of the literature fails to adequately describe the methods used to train participants on how to use the protocol. In addition, few studies measure participant procedural integrity (i.e., the extent to which the protocol is implemented as planned). To date, no study has systematically examined the effects of different training methods on the procedural integrity of SAFMEDS implementation. To address this, a multiple baseline design was used to compare the effects of two training methods (i.e., instructions and behavioral skills training) on the percentage of steps completed correctly by 10 undergraduate students. Although instructions alone resulted in slight increases in percent correct, behavioral skills training was needed for the majority of participants to implement the protocol with near-perfect accuracy. During post-training and maintenance, percent correct remained high. Instructions have been the primary method of training students to use SAFMEDS; however, instructions alone are not sufficient. Behavioral skills training is a quick and effective alternative to teach the SAFMEDS protocol with high procedural integrity.


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